Marx sympathizes with workers – the working class.
He thinks if the society wants to achieve a happy state, then it must need supplement its workers first. The workers are the biggest portion in a society, that’s how he thinks.
Across all lines, you can see the antagony towards capitals from Marx. He hates it so much and he thinks that the capitals do not care about the fluctuations of the market, thus being ignoring and indifferent towards the live or die of their workers.
This was the huge gap between rich and poor in 19th century, Marx saw the societies in that time and he saw many miseries from workers.
Workers lives depend on their wages, but wages are just the mere puppet of the manipulation from capitalists and land owners. They are the capitals.
He formulated an equation, as in the relation between capitals and market.
Capital = Rent*Profit*Wage
He firmly believes that either one of the parameters decreases, the other one of them would increase, and the last stays stationary.
Rent is coming from land owners, and profit is for capitalists, so on some extent, if fluctuations hit market, workers benefit from wage definitely would get hit hard. Since the capitals are on the same boat.
And he thinks that the capitals would always use workers as shield for protecting them from the fluctuations of market, thus it’s always workers who suffer and suffer the first.
In 19th century, European countries are at the primitive stage of capitalism – everyone is madly accumulating capitals/wealth, and at the cost of exploiting surrounding resources as much as possible. In this stage, society is on one hand, stably prospering; on the other, creates more volatility and holes inside. Workers are abandoned because of the fluctuations, i.e. supply exceeds demand, and many left destitute was the common thing happened back then.
And this can also refer to The Suicide/Le Suicide – the first systematically and quantitatively sociology work of depicting the suicidal rate in 19th century Europe, by Emile Durkheim. He is one of the found fathers of sociology.
The Suicide depicts a world like this: In 19th Europe, multiple Europe powers have entered industrial age. The more prosperous the country is, the higher the suicidal rate, vice versa. So here lies in the the combination of sociology and communism. As of this, a country that is more industrialized and it gets higher suicidal rates, and this, mostly coming out from the working class. They are always the suffering one if any fluctuation hits.
Industrialization is the fundamental core of capitalism, every capital matters to industries.
In this primitive stage of society, Marx saw most the miserable truths from his worker fellows. Even from an economy perspective, a country that is prospering isn’t doing anything wrong, it grows its wealth, aka GDP. But the same time you can’t despite the fact of many people committing suicide.
He saw unsettling and unfairness between capitals and workers. He wanted to change the ultimate relationship downright. He proposed Communism.
Marx is not all full of producing together and make communism. In his ideas, he focuses more on individuality.
What his opinion at, is that the abilities and talents of individuals are the most important. Because this is shown especially conspicuous in the working class, but capitals ignore and neglect this. He thinks, if this can be magnified, then the happiness of workers can increase.
So from here, it derives a social system – Welfare System. It’s the thing that exists in all current European powers and plus North America, China is also building it slowly. This, is refined from the Marxism/Communism.
But for sufficing the welfare system’s sake, the society has to accumulate enough wealth to practically implement it. Otherwise it’ll just get taken immediately, like the China in 1980s – insufficient resources can not supply the current population.
Marx’s ideal is a just and fair society, because there was wealth contrast in 19th century, i.e. the enormous gap between workers and capitals, causing all sorts of miseries. He wishes the society not only supplement capitalists, but also workers.
There is a policy in modern Germany – inheritance tax. Increasing the inheritance tax, can protect the social fairness and do wealth redistribution. So that, the inheritance and inheritors would not create huge unfairness in society. Focusing more on individual development and growth, this is much beneficial for the society.
Above all, what Marx dreams about is also what I dream about: A world that everyone can start from the same line.